##### Python error
 Python error smham Unladen Swallow Posts: 4 Threads: 2 Joined: Oct 2017 Reputation: 0 Oct-02-2017, 10:46 AM Here is file cluster.py ```from PIL import ImageDraw,Image from math import sqrt import random def readfile(filename): lines = [line for line in open(filename)] # First line is the column titles colnames = lines[0].strip().split('\t')[1:] rownames = [] data = [] for line in lines[1:]: p = line.strip().split('\t') # First column in each row is the rowname rownames.append(p[0]) # The data for this row is the remainder of the row data.append([float(x) for x in p[1:]]) return (rownames, colnames, data) def pearson(v1, v2): # Simple sums sum1 = sum(v1) sum2 = sum(v2) # Sums of the squares sum1Sq = sum([pow(v, 2) for v in v1]) sum2Sq = sum([pow(v, 2) for v in v2]) # Sum of the products pSum = sum([v1[i] * v2[i] for i in range(len(v1))]) # Calculate r (Pearson score) num = pSum - sum1 * sum2 / len(v1) den = sqrt((sum1Sq - pow(sum1, 2) / len(v1)) * (sum2Sq - pow(sum2, 2) / len(v1))) if den == 0: return 0 return 1.0 - num / den class bicluster: def __init__( self, vec, left=None, right=None, distance=0.0, id=None, ): self.left = left self.right = right self.vec = vec self.id = id self.distance = distance def hcluster(rows, distance=pearson): distances = {} currentclustid = -1 # Clusters are initially just the rows clust = [bicluster(rows[i], id = i) for i in range(len(rows))] while len(clust) > 1: lowestpair = (0, 1) closest = distance(clust[0].vec, clust[1].vec) # loop through every pair looking for the smallest distance for i in range(len(clust)): for j in range(i + 1, len(clust)): # distances is the cache of distance calculations if (clust[i].id, clust[j].id) not in distances: distances[(clust[i].id, clust[j].id)] = \ distance(clust[i].vec, clust[j].vec) d = distances[(clust[i].id, clust[j].id)] if d < closest: closest = d lowestpair = (i, j) # calculate the average of the two clusters mergevec = [(clust[lowestpair[0]].vec[i] + clust[lowestpair[1]].vec[i]) / 2.0 for i in range(len(clust[0].vec))] # create the new cluster newcluster = bicluster(mergevec, left=clust[lowestpair[0]], right=clust[lowestpair[1]], distance=closest, id=currentclustid) # cluster ids that weren't in the original set are negative currentclustid -= 1 del clust[lowestpair[1]] del clust[lowestpair[0]] clust.append(newcluster) return clust[0] def printclust(clust, labels=None, n=0): # indent to make a hierarchy layout for i in range(n): print (' '), if clust.id < 0: # negative id means that this is branch print ('-') else: # positive id means that this is an endpoint if labels == None: print (clust.id) else: print (labels[clust.id]) # now print the right and left branches if clust.left != None: printclust(clust.left, labels=labels, n=n + 1) if clust.right != None: printclust(clust.right, labels=labels, n=n + 1) # use the recursion to get the height of the given cluster def getheight(clust): # Is this an endpoint? Then the height is just 1 if clust.left == None and clust.right == None: return 1 # Otherwise the height is the same of the heights of # each branch return getheight(clust.left) + getheight(clust.right) def getdepth(clust): # The distance of an endpoint is 0.0 if clust.left == None and clust.right == None: return 0 # The distance of a branch is the greater of its two sides # plus its own distance return max(getdepth(clust.left), getdepth(clust.right)) + clust.distance def drawdendrogram(clust, labels, jpeg='clusters.jpg'): # height and width h = getheight(clust) * 20 w = 1200 depth = getdepth(clust) # width is fixed, so scale distances accordingly scaling = float(w - 150) / depth # Create a new image with a white background img = Image.new('RGB', (w, h), (255, 255, 255)) draw = ImageDraw.Draw(img) draw.line((0, h / 2, 10, h / 2), fill=(255, 0, 0)) # Draw the first node drawnode( draw, clust, 10, h / 2, scaling, labels = labels ) img.save(jpeg, 'JPEG') def drawnode( draw, clust, x, y, scaling, labels ): if clust.id < 0: h1 = getheight(clust.left) * 20 h2 = getheight(clust.right) * 20 top = y - (h1 + h2) / 2 bottom = y + (h1 + h2) / 2 # Line length ll = clust.distance * scaling # Vertical line from this cluster to children draw.line((x, top + h1 / 2, x, bottom - h2 / 2), fill=(255, 0, 0)) # Horizontal line to left item draw.line((x, top + h1 / 2, x + ll, top + h1 / 2), fill=(255, 0, 0)) # Horizontal line to right item draw.line((x, bottom - h2 / 2, x + ll, bottom - h2 / 2), fill=(255, 0, 0)) # Call the function to draw the left and right nodes drawnode( draw, clust.left, x + ll, top + h1 / 2, scaling, labels ) drawnode( draw, clust.right, x + ll, bottom - h2 / 2, scaling, labels ) else: # If this is an endpoint, draw the item label draw.text((x + 5, y - 7), labels[clust.id], (0, 0, 0)) ```And here is file excute.py ```import cluster blognames, words, data = cluster.readfile('C:/Users/Bui/Documents/blogdata.txt') cluts = cluster.hcluster(data) cluster.drawdendrogram(cluts, blognames,jpeg= 'blogclust.jpg') ```When i run the excute.py i got the following errors "C:\Users\Bui\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36-32\python.exe C:/Users/Bui/PycharmProjects/helloworld/excute.py Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:\Users\Bui\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36-32\lib\site-packages\PIL\ImageDraw.py", line 217, in text mask, offset = font.getmask2(text, self.fontmode, *args, **kwargs) AttributeError: 'ImageFont' object has no attribute 'getmask2' During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred: Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:/Users/Bui/PycharmProjects/helloworld/excute.py", line 4, in cluster.drawdendrogram(cluts, blognames,jpeg= 'blogclust.jpg') File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 158, in drawdendrogram labels = labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 195, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 195, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 203, in drawnode labels [Previous line repeated 3 more times] File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 195, in drawnode labels File "C:\Users\Bui\PycharmProjects\helloworld\cluster.py", line 207, in drawnode draw.text((x + 5, y - 7), labels[clust.id], (0, 0, 0)) File "C:\Users\Bui\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36-32\lib\site-packages\PIL\ImageDraw.py", line 221, in text mask = font.getmask(text, self.fontmode, *args, **kwargs) File "C:\Users\Bui\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36-32\lib\site-packages\PIL\ImageFont.py", line 113, in getmask return self.font.getmask(text, mode) UnicodeEncodeError: 'latin-1' codec can't encode character '\u2013' in position 9: ordinal not in range(256) Process finished with exit code 1 " Please help me to fix it Reply Larz60+ aetate et sapientia Posts: 9,610 Threads: 357 Joined: Sep 2016 Reputation: 416 Oct-02-2017, 12:13 PM add: `# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-`at top of script Reply smham Unladen Swallow Posts: 4 Threads: 2 Joined: Oct 2017 Reputation: 0 Oct-02-2017, 12:16 PM Not working for me Reply

Forum Jump:

### User Panel Messages

##### Announcements
Announcement #1 8/1/2020
Announcement #2 8/2/2020
Announcement #3 8/6/2020