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string slicing
Hi, i just want to ask what is the default begining point and the ending point of a slice with negative step like this

I try to find what exactly begining point and ending point of the slice:

>>> x='123456789'
>>> x[0:len(x):-1]
>>> x[len(x):0:-1]
'98765432'    (not include '1')
>>> x[len(x):-1:-1]
Can anyone just tell me what is the starting point and ending point when we slice with default like this x[::-1]
Python tells you
>>> s = slice(None, None, -1)
>>> x = '123456789'
>>> s.indices(len(x))
(8, -1, -1)
(Jun-28-2019, 03:01 AM)Uchikago Wrote: Can anyone just tell me what is the starting point and ending point when we slice with default like this x[::-1]

To add to Gribouillis answer: it is always good idea to look into official documentation. This section from An informal introduction to Python covers it all:

Strings can be indexed (subscripted), with the first character having index 0. There is no separate character type; a character is simply a string of size one:

>>> word = 'Python'
>>> word[0]  # character in position 0
>>> word[5]  # character in position 5
Indices may also be negative numbers, to start counting from the right:

>>> word[-1]  # last character
>>> word[-2]  # second-last character
>>> word[-6]
Note that since -0 is the same as 0, negative indices start from -1.

In addition to indexing, slicing is also supported. While indexing is used to obtain individual characters, slicing allows you to obtain substring:

>>> word[0:2]  # characters from position 0 (included) to 2 (excluded)
>>> word[2:5]  # characters from position 2 (included) to 5 (excluded)
Note how the start is always included, and the end always excluded. This makes sure that s[:i] + s[i:] is always equal to s:

>>> word[:2] + word[2:]
>>> word[:4] + word[4:]
Slice indices have useful defaults; an omitted first index defaults to zero, an omitted second index defaults to the size of the string being sliced.

>>> word[:2]   # character from the beginning to position 2 (excluded)
>>> word[4:]   # characters from position 4 (included) to the end
>>> word[-2:]  # characters from the second-last (included) to the end
One way to remember how slices work is to think of the indices as pointing between characters, with the left edge of the first character numbered 0. Then the right edge of the last character of a string of n characters has index n, for example:

| P | y | t | h | o | n |
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

The first row of numbers gives the position of the indices 0…6 in the string; the second row gives the corresponding negative indices. The slice from i to j consists of all characters between the edges labeled i and j, respectively.

For non-negative indices, the length of a slice is the difference of the indices, if both are within bounds. For example, the length of word[1:3] is 2.

Attempting to use an index that is too large will result in an error:

>>> word[42]  # the word only has 6 characters
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
IndexError: string index out of range
However, out of range slice indexes are handled gracefully when used for slicing:

>>> word[4:42]
>>> word[42:]
Python strings cannot be changed — they are immutable. Therefore, assigning to an indexed position in the string results in an error:

>>> word[0] = 'J'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: 'str' object does not support item assignment
>>> word[2:] = 'py'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: 'str' object does not support item assignment
If you need a different string, you should create a new one:

>>> 'J' + word[1:]
>>> word[:2] + 'py'
The built-in function len() returns the length of a string:

>>> s = 'supercalifragilisticexpialidocious'
>>> len(s)
I'm not 'in'-sane. Indeed, I am so far 'out' of sane that you appear a tiny blip on the distant coast of sanity. Bucky Katt, Get Fuzzy

Da Bishop: There's a dead bishop on the landing. I don't know who keeps bringing them in here. ....but society is to blame.

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